|Native to||China, Vietnam|
|Ethnicity||Han, Zhuang, San Chay|
|7+ million (2016)|
|Cantonese Yale||Pìhng Wá|
|Alternative Chinese name|
|Cantonese Yale||Gwóngsāi Pìhng Wá|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Guǎngxī Pínghuà|
Pinghua[a] refers to various Sinitic language varieties spoken mainly in parts of Guangxi, with some speakers in Hunan. Pinghua is a trade language in some areas of Guangxi, spoken as a second language by speakers of Zhuang languages. Some speakers are officially classified as Zhuang, and many are genetically distinct from most other Han Chinese. The northern subgroup is centered on Guilin and the southern subgroup around Nanning. The Southern dialect has several notable features such as having four distinct checked tones, and using various loanwords from the Zhuang languages, such as the final particle wei for imperative sentences.
Language surveys in Guangxi during the 1950s recorded varieties of Chinese that had been included in the Yue dialect group but were different from those in Guangdong. Pinghua was designated as a separate dialect group from Yue by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in the 1980s: 15 and since then has been treated as a separate dialect in textbooks and surveys.
Since designation as a separate dialect group, Pinghua has been the focus of increased research. In 2008 a report by the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences of research into Chinese varieties noted an increase in research papers and surveys of Pinghua, from 7 before the 1987 publication of the Language Atlas of China based on the revised classification, and about 156 between then and 2004.
Pinghua is generally divided into two mutually unintelligible languages:
- Northern Pinghua (Guìběi 桂北平话) is spoken in northern Guangxi, around the city of Guilin, in close proximity with Southwest Mandarin dialects.
- Southern Pinghua (Guìnán 桂南平话) is spoken in southern Guangxi, around the city of Nanning. These varieties form a dialect continuum with Yue varieties spoken in that part of Guangxi (excluding enclaves of Cantonese, such as in Nanning). Yu Jin subdivides this group into three types:
Nanning Pinghua has a voiceless lateral fricative [ɬ] for Middle Chinese /s/ or /z/, for example in the numbers /ɬam/ "three" and /ɬi/ "four". This is unlike Standard Cantonese but like some other Yue varieties such as Taishanese.
|高||52 [˥˨]||33 [˧]||55 [˥]||5 [˥]|
|高||21 [˨˩]||24 [˨˦]||22 [˨]||23 [˨˧]|
Genetically, Pinghua speakers have more in common with non-Han ethnic groups in southern China, as opposed to other Han groups.
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