Harzandi dialect

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Native toIran
Native speakers
36,000 (2021)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3hrz

Harzandi or Harzani (Tati: هرزندی، هرزنی) is a dialect of the Tati language,[2][3][4][5] spoken in the northern regions of the East Azarbaijan province of Iran. It is strictly an oral language, and a descendant of the Old Azeri language that has long been extinct as a result of the diffusion of Turkish in the area.[6]

General Information[edit]

Harzani Tati is considered an endangered language with a little less than 30,000 speakers in present day.[7] Its speakers principally reside in the rural district of Harzand, particularly in the village known as Galin Qayah. Harzani is also present in the neighboring villages of Babratein and Dash Harzand.[6]

As of now, Harzani has not been formally recognized by the Islamic Republic of Iran, and thus receives no government support.[8]

Language Features[8][edit]

Like other languages and dialects of the Iranian language family, Harzani follows a subject–object–verb (SOV) word order. It has nine vowels, and shares a consonant inventory with Persian. It further exhibits a split-ergative case system: its present tense is structured to follow nominative-accusative patterning, while its past tense follows ergative-absolutive.

One characteristic that distinguishes Harzani from related Northwestern Iranian languages is its change from an intervocalic /d/ to an /r/.[3] It also has a tendency to lengthen its vowels. For instance, it has the closed vowel /oe/.

Nouns and Pronouns[edit]

Nouns and pronouns in Harzani do not reflect grammatical gender, but they do express case. Nouns, in particular, encode two cases: direct and oblique case, the first of which is not rendered morphologically, but the second is by attaching a suffix. Meanwhile, personal pronouns have three cases: direct, oblique, and possessive.


Verbs in Harzani are inflected for present tense and past tense. Information concerning person and number is reflected in suffixes that attach to these two verb stems. Modal and aspectual information is expressed using prefixes.

Numeral System[edit]

Part of Harzani's counting system is as follows:[9]

1. i 11. doh-o-i 21. vist-o-i 40. t͡ʃel
2. de 12. doh-o-de / dozde 22. vist-o-de 50. pind͡ʒe
3. here 13. doh-o-here 23. vist-o-heri 60. ʃeʃt
4. t͡ʃö 14. doh-o-t͡ʃö / t͡ʃördæ 24. vist-o-t͡ʃö 70. hæftö
5. pind͡ʒ 15. doh-o-pind͡ʒ / puzæ 25. vist-o-pind͡ʒ 80. hæʃtö
6. ʃoʃ 16. doh-o-ʃoʃ 26. vist-o-ʃoʃ 90. soj-i-doh-kim
7. hoft 17. doh-o-hoft 27. vist-o-hoft 100. soj / sæ
8. hæft 18. doh-o-hæft / hæʒdæ 28. vist-o-hæft 200. de sæ
9. nov 19. doh-o-nov 29. vist-o-nov 1000. hæzo
10. doh 20. vist 30. si 2000. de-hæzo

Sample Words[edit]

arina Friday[3]
ruzare 'west'
ruz 'sun'
parare 'below'
parpe 'above'
-are 'under'
oev (öv) 'water'
voer 'wind'
hoev 'sister'
isbaa 'dog'

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Harzani at Ethnologue (26th ed., 2023) closed access
  2. ^ Kārang, A. A. 1954: Tāti va Harzani. Tabriz: Esma’il Va’ezpur.
  3. ^ a b c "Hening Tati".
  4. ^ Tati Language (An Introduction), Professor Ehsan Yarshater.
  5. ^ Tati group (Tati-Talyshi); Donald Stilo (1981)
  6. ^ a b Karimzadeh, J. 1994: "The Verbal Constructions in Azari (Harzani Dialect)." Master's thesis, Tarbiat Modarres University.
  7. ^ Harzani at Ethnologue (17th Edition, 2014)]
  8. ^ a b Harzani at Languages of the World (LLOW)
  9. ^ [1] Archived 2014-05-02 at the Wayback Machine at Eugene Chan's Catalog of the World's Numeral Systems

Further reading[edit]

  1. Kārang, A. A. 1954: Tāti va Harzani. Tabriz: Esma’il Va’ezpur.
  2. Korn, A. 2009: "Western Iranian Pronominal Clitics." In: Orientalia Suecana LVIII.
  3. Mortazavī, M. 1954: "Noktei cand az zabān-e harzani." In: NDATabriz 6, 304-314.
  4. Mortazavī, M. 1963: "Fe‘l dar zabān-e harzani." In: NDATabriz 15, 61-97.
  5. Stilo, D. 1981: "The Tati Language Group in the Sociolinguistic Context of Northwestern Iran and Transcaucasia." In: Iranian Studies 14.3/4, 137-187.
  6. Zokā, Y. 1957: "Gūyeš-e Galin-Qaye: 'Harzandi'." In: Farhang-e Irānzamin.

External links[edit]